膠登冇人講Net Neutrality??? 如果支共想玩網絡廿三條,我覺得呢單嘢可以畀香港借鏡

Net Neutrality
By Gerry Smith
Updated on 2017年11月21日 下午4:04 [GMT+8]

The internet is a set of pipes. It’s also a set of values. Whose? The people who consider it a great social equalizer, a playing field that has to be level? Or the ones who own the network and consider themselves best qualified to manage it? It’s a philosophical contest fought under the banner of “net neutrality,” a slogan that inspires rhetorical devotion but eludes precise definition. Broadly, it means everything on the internet should be equally accessible — that the internet should be a place where great ideas compete on equal terms with big money. Even in the contentious arena of net neutrality, that’s a principle everybody claims to honor. Interpreting it turned into a different story.

The Situation

The U.S. Federal Communications Commission is preparing to release plans to replace net neutrality rules enacted under Democratic President Barack Obama; [#ff0011]_he FCC could vote on the change in December. These 2015 rules imposed increased government oversight of broadband traffic. Internet service providers became treated as public utilities and were forbidden from blocking or slowing rivals’ content. The rules also applied open-internet protections to wireless services for tablets and smartphones. [/#ff0011]This May, under Ajit Pai, the FCC chairman chosen by Republican President Donald Trump, the agency proposed that the rules be gutted and asked for public reaction. It has received more than 22 million comments. On July 12, during a “day of action” to save net neutrality, Reddit, the social news and discussion site, featured a pop-up message that slowly typed out letter by letter: “The internet’s less fun when your favorite sites load slowly, isn’t it?” Both the Obama administration and internet service companies, which had fought the rules, said they wanted an open internet and “net neutrality,” an idea also embraced by other countries with widely varying definitions of the principle.

The Background

The term “network neutrality” was coined in 2002 by Tim Wu, a law professor and author. He argued that [#ff0011]no authority should be able to decide what kind of information was and wasn’t allowed on the internet. [/#ff0011]But Wu also recognized the expense of maintaining network hardware, so he proposed that providers should be allowed to charge based on usage. [#ff0011]People would pay for more bandwidth, not for access to certain sites.[/#ff0011] In 2005, the FCC released a statement turning Wu’s principles into policies. When Comcast interfered with access to web networks that used a lot of bandwidth and enabled trading of pirated content, the FCC balked in 2008. Comcast sued, and won. The FCC set new rules and Verizon then challenged them, winning in a U.S. court in early 2014. This then started the process for the 2015 rules.

The Argument

Supporters had said with internet use and related costs rising fast, the FCC needed net neutrality power to force a shrinking handful of powerful internet service providers to treat all web traffic equally. They also note that the regulation survived a federal appeals court challenge from broadband providers in 2016. [#ff0011]Many Republicans have sided with internet providers who said that more regulation deters investment in a better internet.[/#ff0011] Opponents had challenged the FCC’s legal right to upend the old regulatory framework that was in place as companies spent billions of dollars to build high-speed internet networks. Beneath the legal and policy questions lies a philosophical one: Who owns the internet? Providers who pay to maintain it? Consumers who pay to connect to it? Content companies whose services depend on it? Who balances their competing interests?

The Reference Shelf

Professor Tim Wu coined the phrase “network neutrality” in a 2002 paper.
A Wired magazine article untangles some confusion over “fast lanes.”
Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 sets forth regulations “common carriers” must follow “in the public interest.”
The comedian John Oliver had strong feelings about net neutrality (boring and “hugely important”) in 2014 and in May called for people to contact the FCC about the issue.
A Bloomberg news interview with Tim Berners-Lee, the “father of the web,” touched on net neutrality.
Edmund Lee contributed to the original version of this article.

First published June 24, 2014
2017/11/21, 7:38:22 晚上
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